What is Ohm’s Law?
Electrical Fundamentals
Ohm’s Law is a foundational concept in the field of electronics, describing the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electrical circuit. For anyone studying electrical systems, understanding Ohm’s Law is crucial, much like how Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc², is for physics.
The Formula
Ohm's Law is expressed as:
E = I x R
This can be broken down as follows:
 E (Voltage)= the electrical potential difference, measured in volts (V).
 I (Current)= the flow of electrical charge, measured in amperes (A).
 R (Resistance)= the opposition to the flow of current, measured in ohms (Ω).
Key Components of Ohm's Law
The law is named after Georg Ohm, a German physicist who discovered that the amount of electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it, provided the temperature remains constant.
Understanding the Variables:
Quantity 
Symbol 
Unit 
Description 
Voltage 
E 
Volt (V) 
The force pushing electrons through a conductor. 
Current 
I 
Ampere (A) 
The rate at which electrons flow. 
Resistance 
R 
Ohm (Ω) 
The material's resistance to electron flow. 
Using Ohm’s Law
Ohm's Law can be reconfigured to solve for any of the three variables if the other two are known:
 If you know Voltage (E) and Current (I), solve for Resistance (R):
R=E/I

If you know Voltage (E) and Resistance (R), solve for Current (I):
I=E/R

If you know Current (I) and Resistance (R), solve for Voltage (E):
E=I×R
Practical Examples
Let’s look at a few examples where Ohm’s Law is applied:
Example 1: Calculating Current (I)
Given:
 Voltage (E) = 12V
 Resistance (R) = 6Ω
Solution:
I=E/R=12V/6Ω=2A
Example 2: Calculating Resistance (R)
Given:
 Voltage (E) = 24V
 Current (I) = 6A
Solution:
R=E/I=24V/6A=4ΩR
Example 3: Calculating Voltage (E)
Given:
 Current (I) = 5A
 Resistance (R) = 8Ω
Solution:
E=I×R=5A×8Ω=40V
Importance of Ohm’s Law
Ohm’s Law plays a vital role in designing and troubleshooting electrical circuits. It helps validate whether a circuit’s components are functioning properly by comparing expected values to actual measurements. When abnormalities occur, such as an unusually high current or a lowerthanexpected voltage, Ohm’s Law can pinpoint the issue.
For example, if a circuit shows higher current than expected, it could be due to reduced resistance or increased voltage, signaling a potential issue with the power supply or components. On the other hand, a lower current might suggest increased resistance, possibly caused by damaged or corroded parts, or loose connections.
Conclusion
Ohm's Law is an essential tool in electronics, making it easier to understand and work with circuits. By mastering the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance, technicians can ensure the proper operation of electrical systems and quickly diagnose problems when they arise.
Understanding this law is crucial for anyone involved in electronics, from students to professional technicians.